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Chemically pure carbon can be prepared by termic decomposition of sugar (sucrose) in absence of air.
The physical and chemical properties of carbon depend on the crystalline structure of the element.
Under very hot temperatures — greater than 100,000,000 Kelvin (179,999,540.6 F) — the helium nuclei begin to fuse, first as pairs into unstable 4-proton beryllium nuclei, and eventually, as enough beryllium nuclei blink into existence, into a beryllium plus a helium.
The end result: Atoms with six protons and six neutrons — carbon.
While scientists sometimes conceptualize electrons spinning around an atom's nucleus in a defined shell, they actually fly around the nucleus at various distances; this view of the carbon atom can be seen here in two electron cloud figures (bottom), showing the electrons in a single blob (the so-called s-orbital) and in a two-lobed blob or cloud (the p-orbital). It can link to itself, forming long, resilient chains called polymers.
It can also bond with up to four other atoms because of its electron arrangement.
Symbol: C; atomic no: 6; atomic wt: 12.011; valency: 2, 3, or 4; relative density: 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.15–3.53 (diamond); sublimes at 3367±25°C; boiling pt: 4827°C 1. Symbol C A naturally abundant, nonmetallic element that occurs in all organic compounds and can be found in all living things. Proteins, sugars, fats, and even DNA all contain many carbon atoms.
a nonmetallic element found combined with other elements in all organic matter and in a pure state as diamond and graphite. Diamonds and graphite are pure forms, and carbon is a major part of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The element carbon is also important, however, outside the chemistry of living things.
In diamond, each carbon atom bonds to four others in a dense network that makes the material the hardest substance known.
Naturally occurring graphite occurs in two forms, alpha and beta.
These two forms have identical physical properties but different crystal structures.
History and Uses: Carbon, the sixth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times.
Amorphous carbon is formed when a material containing carbon is burned without enough oxygen for it to burn completely.
In older stars that have burned most of their hydrogen, leftover helium accumulates.